Western – campaigns on Estov, Poland, Mazovia (+ Yatvyagov, Lithuania), dynastic marriages with the kings of Hungary, Norway, France, Poland
North – Campaign on the Yam (Yem) tribes
South – campaign to Constantinople, a reflection of the Pechenegs raid
Briefly about the content of the main events
Boleslav I brought to Poland many prisoners and spoils, including the sisters of Yaroslav and, according to one version, his first wife, Anna. Yaroslav, later marrying the daughter of the Swedish king Ingigerde and securing the support of Norman mercenaries, defeated Svyatopolk and drove him out of Kiev, but could begin active actions outside his own state only after 1026 – the lands ravaged by civil strife required restoration, and other Russian princes tried to power challenge of Yaroslav.
Campaign on the Chud and foundation of the city of Yuryev in 1030
In the Baltic lands, presumably on the Amovzhe River, the squad of Prince Yaroslav defeated the Chud army. At the battle site, Prince Yaroslav ordered the city of Yuryev to be laid (named after the Christian name of the prince, in some sources “Gyurgev”, today the city of Tartu in Estonia).
Chopped walls and towers were erected on a hill, the slopes of which served as natural obstacles for the besiegers.
«And ordered him to bring tribute from all over the lands», — V. N. Tatishchev
Polish campaign 1030-1031
In 1030, the troops of Yaroslav took the city of Belz, but the main goal of the campaign – the return of all Cherven cities – was not achieved. The prince prepared himself more carefully for the new campaign against Poland, enlisting the support of his brother – Prince Chernigov Mstislav Vladimirovich.
In 1031, Yaroslav and Mstislav gathered a large army and invaded Poland, having conquered the cities of Przemysl and Cherven, and having captured many Poles, divided them. Yaroslav settled his prisoners along the Ros River. In fact, these events became a kind of revenge for the invasion of Boleslav I in 1018 in Kiev.
According to one version, Harald III Sigurdsson, the king of Norway, half-brother of St. Olaf, fled to Yaroslav the Wise and participated in the campaign to return the Cherven cities. Subsequently, Harald married Elizabeth Yaroslavna and was able to regain the Norwegian throne.
The defeat of the Pechenegs during the siege of Kiev in 1036
A bloody battle with superior nomads ended in an unconditional victory for the Russians. The remaining attackers fled in panic: a lot of Pechenegs drowned in the Setomli River and other rivers, some went to the borders of Byzantium, and some went to the Don River.
After that, the Pechenegs ceased to play an independent role, and acted as a significant part of the new tribal alliance of the Berendey, also called “black hoods”.
Union with Poland and campaign in Mazovia
Casimir asked Yaroslav for help in returning Mazovia, where the local nobility broke away from Poland at the time of the peasant revolt of 1037-1038 and chose a certain Maslav (Moislav / Mechislav) as his prince.
As a sign of complete reconciliation with Russia, the Polish king released all the Russian captives (c. 800) captured by Boleslav in 1018 and allowed them to return to Russia with property and families.
Yaroslav, from this moment on, begins systematic military campaigns “against the Mazovshan” and allied tribes:
- Winter 1038/39 – Campaign on the Yatvyag
- 1040 – Campaign on the Lithuanians
- 1041 – military raid on the boats to Mazovia
- 1044 – Campaign on the Lithuanians
- 1047 – Campaign on the Mazovians – the assassination of Prince Mazov of Mazov and the subjugation of Mazovia in favor of the Polish king Casimir I – the end of the union agreement with Poland
Campaign on the tribes of Yam (Em) in 1042
It is known that the Kiev troops defeated the enemy, captured the captives and valuable loot, but on the way back there was a great death of horses.
In the year of 6550 (1042). Volodimir the son of Yaroslav went to Yam, defeating them. And the horses died at the soldiers of Volodimer – Primary Chronicle (The Tale of Bygone Years)1
Campaign on the Constantinople in 1043
Yaroslav I the Wise sent an army on a boat on a boat under the command of his eldest son Vladimir, who reigned in Novgorod and commander Vyshat.
6 thousand soldiers, led by the commander Vyshata, including those who landed from the wrecked ships, tried to break through the land route to the north, but this detachment was defeated near Varna by imperial troops. Vyshata himself and his warriors were captured, many of them were blinded.
According to The Tale of Bygone Years, the peace was concluded three years later – in 1046. Vyshat was redeemed and returned to Kiev. As a sign of reconciliation, a dynastic marriage was made between the relative of the emperor Konstantin Monomakh (presumably his daughter) and the son of Yaroslav the Wise, Vsevolod.
Throughout his reign of Kievan Rus, Yaroslav the Wise regularly used to consolidate a dynastic marriage between members of ruling families as a new union. On the map above, you can clearly see with which states this allowed to strengthen relations.
- 1019 – Yaroslav the Wise and Ingigerda, daughter of the Swedish king
- 1038 – Anastasia Yaroslavna and Andras, the future king of Hungary
- 1038/1039 – Polish king Casimir I and Maria Dobronega (sister / niece Ya.M.) – sister of Casimir I Gertrude and Izyaslav Yaroslavich.
- 1043/44 – Elizabeth Yaroslavna and the future king of Norway Harald Sigurdsson
- 1046 – Vsevolod Yaroslavich and a relative of the Byzantine emperor Constantine IX Monomakh
- 1051 – Anna Yaroslavna and King of France Henry I
Total results of foreign policy
- Strengthened the influence of Kievan Rus in the north and northeast directions
- Relations with Poland were restored, the captives and the Cherven cities captured by Boleslav I – were returned
- Dynastic marriages were concluded with the kings of France, Poland, Hungary and Norway, as well as with the family of the emperor of Byzantium – an increase in the authority of Kievan Rus in Europe
- The Pechenegs raid on Kiev is reflected – more these tribes did not disturb the southeastern borders of the state